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The rich trade with Spaia led to the colonization of the west. I., the following statements are made which bear on this subject : — ■ Page 7. Gladstone is cited as taking for the date of the war, b.c. Starting with this, we may form some estimate as to the dates at which other colonies or cities were founded along the coast of Spain by the Phoenicians, and presuming that Cadiz was one of the earliest of these. The Deui'o or Duero has already been mentioned as carrying gold in its sands ; and on its northern bank stands the city and port of Oporto (O'Porto).^ " Small quantitities of tin and qiiicksilver are extracted in the neighbourhood." 1 " Encyclopaedia Brit.," 8th edition, p. O'Reilly — Milesian Colonization relative to Gold-mining. An ancient-looking Celtic cross is set through the slab of an open-air altar, near the west gable ; the octagonal pier of a market cross stands to the north of the great church.

Supposed autograph Letter of JBishop Berkeley in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, . IText the Phoenicians ventui'ed further on the ocean, and drew tin from the mines of north-west Spain, or the richer deposits of Cornwall. In Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia " History of Spain and Portugal," vol. Gladstone's date, as coming from a high classical authority, and as based on sound research, while allowing for the wide range of difference between the assigned dates, the founding or building of Cadiz may be taken as having occurred somewhere between 12 b.c, the place having, in all probability, for some time before that, been a factory or trading- station, and used for that purpose, as also for fishing by the native Celts. This and the pointed south door have disappeared since 1839.

This opened and became crevassed to an extreme degree ; at the same time great winds reigned, so that the trees, ali'eady become dry, were, some broken, the others torn from the ground. It was they, in fact, who from the •earliest times, distributed to the rest of the world the wares of Egypt and Babylon.* The great centre of Phoenician colonization was the western half of the ]y! Bearing in mind that this part of the Peninsula was then inhabited by Celtic tribes, as also the experience the Phoenicians had acquired in the working of the gold mines of Thasos, and their- noted intelligence as miners, it is easy to conceive that an opportunity was presented to them of establishing productive gold washings in the district in question. A vaulted oratory, near to' and south-east from the last, 20 by 12 feet. There remain an east window, a single pointed ^ Perhaps Mochuda, alias Cronan.

The occiu Tence of this great and prolonged di'ought in Spain is mentioned by several Spanish historians, and the following is a t ranslation of an extract relative thereto, taken from an old Spanish. work entitled " Libro de las Grandezas de Tarragona," by Micer Lnys Pons de Tcart, printed at Lerida, 1572, p. In consequence the coimtiy became depopulated, since not only did the springs dry up but also the riyers, the wells, the trees, and the vegetation of the earth. Ploiian de Campo, in the second book of his Chronicle Sj cap. to live, emigrated the fii'st and were thus saved, whilst the rich, having goods in store, lived on fi'om day to clay in the expectation that the times would become better, and so long did they tarry before leaving that when finally they wished to go also they were unable to do so for want of means of living, so that they perished on the highways for want of water, as also by reason of the difiiculties presented by the ground, all crevassed and gasping as it was, in consecjuence of the great drought, and in this way the gi'eater part of the rich and of the nobles of Spain perished, whilst the common people were saved, O'Reilly — Milesian Colonization relntice to Gold-mining. Following on this drouglit it rained without interruption during three years, without cessation as it were, and a great many came to inhabit the country again." " And Pedro Medina, in the cap. of his work, gives a detail of the foreigners, who at different periods came into Spain, as also does. As these privileged districts became crowded, emigration would have carried away the later comers to other countries more favourably circumstanced, such as the Valley of the Phone, or of the I^ile so exceptionally favoured by nattu-e, so that historical data from any other sources failing us for those early dates, it is to the records of Egypt that we should turn to look for some indications which might be taken as the consequences of this drought, if it really occui Ted about the period mentioned, that is, from about b.c. given for the commencements of the Xl Xth, XXth, XXIst, 'XXIInd, Dynasties (the corresponding dates given by Brugsch being here added). Even in later times, Greek observers noted with admiration the exact order kept on boai'd Phoenician ships, the skill with which every corner of space was utilized, the careful disposi- tion of the cargo, the vigilance of the steersmen and their mates.^ They steered by the polar star, which the Greeks, therefore, called the Phoenician star, and all their vessels from the common round ' gaulos ' (or galley) to the great Tarshish ships of the ancient world had a speed which the Greeks never rivalled. ISTow it was at the gates, one might say, of this auriferous country, almost the only one in Spain, that the Milesian Colony is described as having been settled, after a contest with the natives.

450 Eemarks on a Cosmographical Tractate in the Irish Language in the Library of the Eoyal Irish Academy, 457 Dls, E. A series of bays called " rias " or fiords pre- sent themselves, amongst which are four of the finest harbours in Spain, Yigo, Pontevedra, Coruna, and Ferrol. Encyclo- pedia (edition of 1855), the following remarks are made regarding the province and its coastline, rivers, &c., p. 1080; the head of the window has a human face and rich foliage, and is curiously recessed.

The Earliest Periodical Journals published in Dublin. Following, then, the coastline northward of the Minho, that of Galicia presents characteristics which distinguish it from that lying to the south of that river. It is much defaced, and has fine old masonry, probably of the tenth century, and fragments of a decorated south door, and an east window of c.

A tradition that the ancient city of Cadiz was once swallowed up by au 0'E. In O'Reilly's Dictionary (Irish- English, 1877) is given : Gala, Galad s.m. It would seem, therefore, that Cale as applied to Oporto anciently implied the existence there of a Celtic harbour, at the time of the arrival of the Phoenicians, and that the terms '■'■ porto" and '■'■ ca W'' were practically synonymous for harbour. The heads of the east and south windows appear to be ancient. " JS'ua Conghabhaile,'' "new monastery." " mioghevae U," 1584.

To the Greeks and Eomans it was long the westernmost point of the know Ti world ; and the island on. = ' cancelli,' 'barreaux'; du celtique Kimry, ]cae = '' hau,' ' barriere ' ; bas-breton, kae= ' haie et quay.' Les diverses significationis, caium, cayos, and la glose d'Isodore se tiennent par un fil de significations, que I'on suit sans peine." 56 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadennj.

It is said that in very calm weather when the tide is low, the ruins of the old houses and the remains of the Temple of Hercules may sometimea be discovered under the water." Chambers' Encyclopaedia (1888) says of it: "Cadiz, one of the most ancient towns in Eiu'ope, having been built by the Phoenicians ■under the name of Gaddir (= ' fortress') about 1100 e.g." The excellent article in Smith's " Dictionary of Ancient Geo- graphy" says " it was the chief Phoenician colony outside the pillars of Hercules, having been established by them long before the beginning of classical history. As regards the name " Gaia'''' or " Cayo,'' it may be of interest to cite the etymology of the word " quai^' (French) given by Littre in his dictionary: — " Bas-latin, caium= ' quai' dans une charte de Philippe Auguste ; espagnol, cayos = ' ecueils ' ; portug., caes = ' quai ' ; hol- landais, ]caai\ glose d'Isodore, X-«? 1180, and some twelfth and sixteenth century windows.

On the first Mitosis of the Spore Mother -cells of Lilium. I O'Reilly — Milesian Colonization relative to Gold-mining.

The fact of these three Celtic nations being isolated, as mentioned by JSTiebuhr, in Spain, would point to the inference that the Celts were the original inhabitants of the greater part of Spain, and had been split up and driven into the mountain districts by invading races.

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